The ARPANET changed computing forever by proving that computers of wildly different manufacture could be connected using standardized protocols. In my post on the historical significance of the ARPANET, I mentioned a few of those protocols, but didn’t describe them in any detail. So I wanted to take a closer look at them. I also wanted to see how much of the design of those early protocols survives in the protocols we use today.
The ARPANET protocols were, like our modern internet protocols, organized into layers.1 The protocols in the higher layers ran on top of the protocols in the lower layers. Today the TCP/IP suite has five layers (the Physical, Link, Network, Transport, and Application layers), but the ARPANET had only three layers—or possibly four, depending on how you count them.
I’m going to explain how each of these layers worked, but first an aside about who built what in the ARPANET, which you need to know to understand why the layers were divided up as they were.
Some Quick Historical Context
The ARPANET was funded by the US federal government, specifically the Advanced Research Projects Agency within the Department of Defense (hence the name “ARPANET”). The US government did not directly build the network; instead, it contracted the work out to a Boston-based consulting firm called Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, more commonly known as BBN.
BBN, in turn, handled many of the responsibilities for implementing the network but not all of them. What BBN did was design and maintain a machine known as the Interface Message Processor, or IMP. The IMP was a customized Honeywell minicomputer, one of which was delivered to each site across the country that was to be connected to the ARPANET. The IMP served as a gateway to the ARPANET for up to four hosts at each host site. It was basically a router. BBN controlled the software running on the IMPs that forwarded packets from IMP to IMP, but the firm had no direct control over the machines that would connect to the IMPs and become the actual hosts on the ARPANET.
The host machines were controlled by the computer scientists that were the end users of the network. These computer scientists, at host sites across the country, were responsible for writing the software that would allow the hosts to talk to each other. The IMPs gave hosts the ability to send messages to each other, but that was not much use unless the hosts agreed on a format to use for the messages. To solve that problem, a motley crew consisting in large part of graduate students from the various host sites formed themselves into the Network Working Group, which sought to specify protocols for the host computers to use.
So if you imagine a single successful network interaction over the ARPANET, (sending an email, say), some bits of engineering that made the interaction successful were the responsibility of one set of people (BBN), while other bits of engineering were the responsibility of another set of people (the Network Working Group and the engineers at each host site). That organizational and logistical happenstance probably played a big role in motivating the layered approach used for protocols on the ARPANET, which in turn influenced the layered approach used for TCP/IP.
Okay, Back to the Protocols
The ARPANET protocol hierarchy.
The protocol layers were organized into a hierarchy. At the very bottom was “level 0.”2 This is the layer that in some sense doesn’t count, because on the ARPANET this layer was controlled entirely by BBN, so there was no need for a standard protocol. Level 0 governed how data passed between the IMPs. Inside of BBN, there were rules governing how IMPs did this; outside of BBN, the IMP sub-network was a black box that just passed on any data that you gave it. So level 0 was a layer without a real protocol, in the sense of a publicly known and agreed-upon set of rules, and its existence could be ignored by software running on the ARPANET hosts. Loosely speaking, it handled everything that falls under the Physical, Link, and Internet layers of the TCP/IP suite today, and even quite a lot of the Transport layer, which is something I’ll come back to at the end of this post.
The “level 1” layer established the interface between the ARPANET hosts and the IMPs they were connected to. It was an API, if you like, for the black box level 0 that BBN had built. It was also referred to at the time as the IMP-Host Protocol. This protocol had to be written and published because, when the ARPANET was first being set up, each host site had to write its own software to interface with the IMP. They wouldn’t have known how to do that unless BBN gave them some guidance.
The IMP-Host Protocol was specified by BBN in a lengthy document called BBN Report 1822. The document was revised many times as the ARPANET evolved; what I’m going to describe here is roughly the way the IMP-Host protocol worked as it was initially designed. According to BBN’s rules, hosts could pass messages to their IMPs no longer than 8095 bits, and each message had a leader that included the destination host number and something called a link number.3 The IMP would examine the designation host number and then dutifully forward the message into the network. When messages were received from a remote host, the receiving IMP would replace the destination host number with the source host number before passing it on to the local host. Messages were not actually what passed between the IMPs themselves—the IMPs broke the messages down into smaller packets for transfer over the network—but that detail was hidden from the hosts.
The Host-IMP message leader format, as of 1969. Diagram from BBN Report 1763.
The link number, which could be any number from 0 to 255, served two purposes. It was used by higher level protocols to establish more than one channel of communication between any two hosts on the network, since it was conceivable that there might be more than one local user talking to the same destination host at any given time. (In other words, the link numbers allowed communication to be multiplexed between hosts.) But it was also used at the level 1 layer to control the amount of traffic that could be sent between hosts, which was necessary to prevent faster computers from overwhelming slower ones. As initially designed, the IMP-Host Protocol limited each host to sending just one message at a time over each link. Once a given host had sent a message along a link to a remote host, it would have to wait to receive a special kind of message called an RFNM (Request for Next Message) from the remote IMP before sending the next message along the same link. Later revisions to this system, made to improve performance, allowed a host to have up to eight messages in transit to another host at a given time.4
The “level 2” layer is where things really start to get interesting, because it was this layer and the one above it that BBN and the Department of Defense left entirely to the academics and the Network Working Group to invent for themselves. The level 2 layer comprised the Host-Host Protocol, which was first sketched in RFC 9 and first officially specified by RFC 54. A more readable explanation of the Host-Host Protocol is given in the ARPANET Protocol Handbook.
The Host-Host Protocol governed how hosts created and managed connections with each other. A connection was a one-way data pipeline between a write socket on one host and a read socket on another host. The “socket” concept was introduced on top of the limited level-1 link facility (remember that the link number can only be one of 256 values) to give programs a way of addressing a particular process running on a remote host. Read sockets were even-numbered while write sockets were odd-numbered; whether a socket was a read socket or a write socket was referred to as the socket’s gender. There were no “port numbers” like in TCP. Connections could be opened, manipulated, and closed by specially formatted Host-Host control messages sent between hosts using link 0, which was reserved for that purpose. Once control messages were exchanged over link 0 to establish a connection, further data messages could then be sent using another link number picked by the receiver.
Host-Host control messages were identified by a three-letter mnemonic. A connection was established when two hosts exchanged a STR (sender-to-receiver) message and a matching RTS (receiver-to-sender) message—these control messages were both known as Request for Connection messages. Connections could be closed by the CLS (close) control message. There were further control messages that changed the rate at which data messages were sent from sender to receiver, which were needed to ensure again that faster hosts did not overwhelm slower hosts. The flow control already provided by the level 1 protocol was apparently not sufficient at level 2; I suspect this was because receiving an RFNM from a remote IMP was only a guarantee that the remote IMP had passed the message on to the destination host, not that the host had fully processed the message. There was also an INR (interrupt-by-receiver) control message and an INS (interrupt-by-sender) control message that were primarily for use by higher-level protocols.
The higher-level protocols all lived in “level 3”, which was the Application layer of the ARPANET. The Telnet protocol, which provided a virtual teletype connection to another host, was perhaps the most important of these protocols, but there were many others in this level too, such as FTP for transferring files and various experiments with protocols for sending email.
One protocol in this level was not like the others: the Initial Connection Protocol (ICP). ICP was considered to be a level-3 protocol, but really it was a kind of level-2.5 protocol, since other level-3 protocols depended on it. ICP was needed because the connections provided by the Host-Host Protocol at level 2 were only one-way, but most applications required a two-way (i.e. full-duplex) connection to do anything interesting. ICP specified a two-step process whereby a client running on one host could connect to a long-running server process on another host. The first step involved establishing a one-way connection from the server to the client using the server process’ well-known socket number. The server would then send a new socket number to the client over the established connection. At that point, the existing connection would be discarded and two new connections would be opened, a read connection based on the transmitted socket number and a write connection based on the transmitted socket number plus one. This little dance was a necessary prelude to most things—it was the first step in establishing a Telnet connection, for example.
That finishes our ascent of the ARPANET protocol hierarchy. You may have been expecting me to mention a “Network Control Protocol” at some point. Before I sat down to do research for this post and my last one, I definitely thought that the ARPANET ran on a protocol called NCP. The acronym is occasionally used to refer to the ARPANET protocols as a whole, which might be why I had that idea. RFC 801, for example, talks about transitioning the ARPANET from “NCP” to “TCP” in a way that makes it sound like NCP is an ARPANET protocol equivalent to TCP. But there has never been a “Network Control Protocol” for the ARPANET (even if Encyclopedia Britannica thinks so), and I suspect people have mistakenly unpacked “NCP” as “Network Control Protocol” when really it stands for “Network Control Program.” The Network Control Program was the kernel-level program running in each host responsible for handling network communication, equivalent to the TCP/IP stack in an operating system today. “NCP”, as it’s used in RFC 801, is a metonym, not a protocol.
A Comparison with TCP/IP
The ARPANET protocols were all later supplanted by the TCP/IP protocols (with the exception of Telnet and FTP, which were easily adapted to run on top of TCP). Whereas the ARPANET protocols were all based on the assumption that the network was built and administered by a single entity (BBN), the TCP/IP protocol suite was designed for an inter-net, a network of networks where everything would be more fluid and unreliable. That led to some of the more immediately obvious differences between our modern protocol suite and the ARPANET protocols, such as how we now distinguish between a Network layer and a Transport layer. The Transport layer-like functionality that in the ARPANET was partly implemented by the IMPs is now the sole responsibility of the hosts at the network edge.
What I find most interesting about the ARPANET protocols though is how so much of the transport-layer functionality now in TCP went through a janky adolescence on the ARPANET. I’m not a networking expert, so I pulled out my college networks textbook (Kurose and Ross, let’s go), and they give a pretty great outline of what a transport layer is responsible for in general. To summarize their explanation, a transport layer protocol must minimally do the following things. Here segment is basically equivalent to message as the term was used on the ARPANET:
- Provide a delivery service between processes and not just host machines (transport layer multiplexing and demultiplexing)
- Provide integrity checking on a per-segment basis (i.e. make sure there is no data corruption in transit)
A transport layer could also, like TCP does, provide reliable data transfer, which means:
- Segments are delivered in order
- No segments go missing
- Segments aren’t delivered so fast that they get dropped by the receiver (flow control)
It seems like there was some confusion on the ARPANET about how to do multiplexing and demultiplexing so that processes could communicate—BBN introduced the link number to do that at the IMP-Host level, but it turned out that socket numbers were necessary at the Host-Host level on top of that anyway. Then the link number was just used for flow control at the IMP-Host level, but BBN seems to have later abandoned that in favor of doing flow control between unique pairs of hosts, meaning that the link number started out as this overloaded thing only to basically became vestigial. TCP now uses port numbers instead, doing flow control over each TCP connection separately. The process-process multiplexing and demultiplexing lives entirely inside TCP and does not leak into a lower layer like on the ARPANET.
It’s also interesting to see, in light of how Kurose and Ross develop the ideas behind TCP, that the ARPANET started out with what Kurose and Ross would call a strict “stop-and-wait” approach to reliable data transfer at the IMP-Host level. The “stop-and-wait” approach is to transmit a segment and then refuse to transmit any more segments until an acknowledgment for the most recently transmitted segment has been received. It’s a simple approach, but it means that only one segment is ever in flight across the network, making for a very slow protocol—which is why Kurose and Ross present “stop-and-wait” as merely a stepping stone on the way to a fully featured transport layer protocol. On the ARPANET, “stop-and-wait” was how things worked for a while, since, at the IMP-Host level, a Request for Next Message had to be received in response to every outgoing message before any further messages could be sent. To be fair to BBN, they at first thought this would be necessary to provide flow control between hosts, so the slowdown was intentional. As I’ve already mentioned, the RFNM requirement was later relaxed for the sake of better performance, and the IMPs started attaching sequence numbers to messages and keeping track of a “window” of messages in flight in the more or less the same way that TCP implementations do today.5
So the ARPANET showed that communication between heterogeneous computing systems is possible if you get everyone to agree on some baseline rules. That is, as I’ve previously argued, the ARPANET’s most important legacy. But what I hope this closer look at those baseline rules has revealed is just how much the ARPANET protocols also influenced the protocols we use today. There was certainly a lot of awkwardness in the way that transport-layer responsibilities were shared between the hosts and the IMPs, sometimes redundantly. And it’s really almost funny in retrospect that hosts could at first only send each other a single message at a time over any given link. But the ARPANET experiment was a unique opportunity to learn those lessons by actually building and operating a network, and it seems those lessons were put to good use when it came time to upgrade to the internet as we know it today.
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Previously on TwoBitHistory…
Trying to get back on this horse!— TwoBitHistory (@TwoBitHistory) February 7, 2021
My latest post is my take (surprising and clever, of course) on why the ARPANET was such an important breakthrough, with a fun focus on the conference where the ARPANET was shown off for the first time:https://t.co/8SRY39c3St
The protocol layering thing was invented by the Network Working Group. This argument is made in RFC 871. The layering thing was also a natural extension of how BBN divided responsibilities between hosts and IMPs, so BBN deserves some credit too. ↩
In later revisions of the IMP-Host protocol, the leader was expanded and the link number was upgraded to a message ID. But the Host-Host protocol continued to make use of only the high-order eight bits of the message ID field, treating it as a link number. See the “Host-to-Host” protocol section of the ARPANET Protocol Handbook. ↩
John M. McQuillan and David C. Walden. “The ARPA Network Design Decisions,” p. 284, https://www.walden-family.com/public/whole-paper.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2021. ↩